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An analysis of glacial striae in the bedrock of the island shows glaciation from the NW and NE. Some striae may have been incorporated into petroglyphs. Also discussed are Gabriola's Nye channels - grooves in the sandstone probably carved by subglacial meltwater streams.
Sandstone weathers relatively rapidly, but you can still find evidence on surfaces of the movement of glaciers over Gabriola. Roches moutonnées (definition included) abound; easy to find once you recognize this glacial landform.
Evidence of glaciation of Gabriola Island from down the Georgian Depression (NW) and across from Howe Sound (NE) is easy to find, but there is also
evidence of an earlier glaciation from the Kennedy Lakes area on Vancouver Island. There is a supplement on glacial striae on the Harewood Plain here.
A description of some of the more interesting ice-age sites on Gabriola. Some of the fossils have been radiocarbon dated and there are notes on the difficulties of interpreting radiocarbon dates of NE Pacific marine fossils from the late-Pleistocene.
A visit to the site of Captain Cook’s landing on the west coast of Vancouver Island.
The discovery of the location of Astronomer’s Rock, and of several of the viewpoints of artists John Webber and William Ellis in April 1778.
The name "Gabriola" was originally "Gabiola" or "Gaviola" and is the Basque name of a medieval iron works in the Kilimon valley near Mendaro in the Deba valley in Spain.
The site of the ferrería, which was the origin of the family name "Gabiola", still exists as shown in these photographs.
Descriptions of the cross-sectional area-velocity method frequently call for large numbers of depth measurements to be made to determine the area. In this article, it is shown that by using mathematical interpolation, very few depth measurements are actually necessary when the stream profile has been determined by erosion and deposition. Only when the cross-sectional profile is fixed by un-eroded bedrock may many sampling points be necessary.
A companion article to Simon Fraser's latitudes - where was the Chief's village? An analysis of Fraser's journal entries for July 2, 1808 when he visited the lower Fraser River down as far as Musqueam.
Fractured sandstone has a different hydrogeology from that often described in textbooks. Concepts such as water table, aquifer, cone of influence, and catchment area don't always apply in the conventional manner.